Existing urban infrastructure and environments must be redesigned to integrate not only consumption by, but also production for citizens and to a much larger extent than ever before (i.e. circular city). Meanwhile, the redesign of urban green and blue morphologies and urban infrastructures must increase resilience to disruptive changes (both climate and economy related) and meet the health and biodiversity needs of metropolitan areas. The challenge will be to increase exibility with smart decentralisation and their interdependencies, while maintaining and developing the ‘slower’ qualities such as historic settings, green spatial qualities and biodiversity.
The perspective of health, resilience and vulnerability leads to far-reaching consequences for the way in which communities are organised and infrastructures are designed and integrated, and especially how the issue of change is handled. The ecosystem services – namely the economic and societal benefits derived from nature and the landscape – need to be researched, designed and tested to develop ways of linking urban public spaces, biodiversity, the social tissue of the city and its green economy. Citizen-centred processes and the smart governance of these physical resources are at the heart of solving major urban challenges related to spatial quality, land-use conflicts, climate-change adaptation, demographic changes and human wellbeing.